Wood Mechanical Properties

Wood is material with unique physicals and mechanical properties. Mechanical properties can be observed by applying an external force. The mechanical properties of wood also called as strength properties.

Tensile means a force pulling the wood fibers at different direction. Tensile strength at the direction of the wood grain (parallel) normally 10-20 times more than its strength perpendicular to the grain.
Tensile strength also depends on the density of wood.

It is the opposite of tensile strength. It means the wood strength to receive a force of pressure. The wood has stronger in compression parallel to the grain, and much weaker in perpendicular to the grain.

Shear strength is the ability to resist internal slipping of one part upon another. The strength of the wood to withstand the movement and pressure that make the wood shifts (without hitting) with load, continuously or gradually. Knots and cracks that appear on the wood may weakened the shear strength.
Usually shear parallel to grain (at tangential or radial) is weaker than perpendicular to grain (longitudinal).    

Wood undergoes dimensional and shape changes when its moisture fluctuates below fiber saturation point. And in mechanical properties, wood has resistance to forces of bending (continuously or repeated impact). When the pressure is given at parallel to grain, wood will have bending reaction on its longitudinal direction. See the blue arrow. 


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